Some of the world's most important natural resources are found in Borneo, an island of indescribably lush tracts of rainforest where exciting creatures swing, soar and scuttle. Some areas of the island have seen more development than others as the population seek economic progress, but there are still plenty of untouched regions to explore.
Hiking and wildlife spotting in the jungle is a major draw, along with canopy walkways, some world class dive sites, indigenous culture, an iconic mountain to climb and engaging towns. Here is a brief round-up of some of Borneo's many highlights.
West of Kuching on the southern edge of Sarawak you will find the Iban stronghold. They are one of the indigenous peoples of the region and they still maintain many of their ancient traditions - the tribal community set up remains unchanged with entire villages coexisting in a single longhouse.
Take a river boat to see some fine examples in the Batang Ai area where longhouses are numerous. Some accept visitors and share some secrets of their lifestyle, including impressive weaving skills, hunting skills and how they make a success of close knit communal living.
This is one of those towns that makes you want to linger longer than you had planned, and considering its size it has quite a calm and mellow atmosphere. Kuching enjoys a pleasant riverside situation, colonial charm and some interesting neighbourhoods to explore, such as Chinatown and Old Kuching which are joined by the waterfront, a kilometre long promenade which enjoys perfect sunset views.
Sarawak museum is well worth a visit, giving a really thorough insight into the natural history and etymological origins of the region. Take a leisurely cruise along the river to gain a new perspective on this appealing town, or venture to the three nearby national parks to explore the wetlands and coastal landscapes.
Taking its name from the brooding peak of Gunung Mulu, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of Sarawak's major highlights. The geology of the area is the headline attraction and most visitors come to explore the caves and hike to the pinnacles, a mountaintop patch of limestone needles which pierce the forest canopy.
The honeycomb network of caves at Mulu National Park are among the world's largest, and most visitors see some or all of the four show caves, each unique and impressive, but if you only have time for one make it the Deer Cave with its vast underground caverns and stunning Garden of Eden. Allow time at sunset to observe the millions of bats that swarm out of the cave to start their nocturnal hunt.
Hugely popular, teeming with wildlife and one of the most biodiverse regions on the planet, Kinabalu National Park is an incredible location for spotting a huge number of species from rare and intriguing plants to some of the most unique creatures on the planet.
The dense concentration of species is the consequence of several different habitats, from lowland forest to cloud forest and montane forest. Not only is the park famous for its incredible botanical variety - including carnivorous pitcher plants and the world's largest flower, the Rafflesia, but it is also well known for its defining landmark: the shark's fin peak of Mount Kinabalu, which challenges keen hikers to reach its tough summit.
Cutting through some of Borneo's most impressive jungle is the Kinabatangan River, where it is popular to take a boat safari along the lower stretches in search of exotic beasts and birds.
The density of wildlife is such that you are likely to see quite a lot of different species in and around the water and the riverbank as you travel along, notably crocodiles, proboscis monkeys, elephants and even orangutans.
The birdlife is a wonder, too, and you may catch sight of serpent eagles, rhinoceros hornbills (like the one pictured below), kingfishers, egrets, darters and many more.
When orangutans are injured, orphaned or taken as pets their survival becomes precarious, and this sanctuary was established to ensure those orangutans at risk are brought back to full health and rehabilitated to ensure they can look after themselves when re-released into the wild.
Some individuals who have never lived in the wild cannot be reintegrated but many are, with a good success rate. While they are at the centre the orangutans are fed twice daily at 10am and 3pm, and you get to watch as they lope over to the feeding station for a meal. It's a popular spot with tourists and gets busy, but worth it to see these wonderful creatures.
Divers and snorkelers will not be able to resist the pull of the islands a short way offshore from Semporna, renowned for having some of the most important and beautiful underwater life anywhere in Asia. For Pulau Sipadan you will need to hold an Advanced Open Water certificate and a permit, which are released in limited numbers to dive operators who will usually include your precious day diving at Sipadan in a multi day dive tour.
Mabul, Mantubuan, Kapalai, Pompom, Sibuan and Mataking are other popular islands in this group for divers, and you will see coral, sharks, turtles, barracuda, rays and eels at many of these. Some of the islands are stunning pinpricks of land perhaps home to just a resort or two, others host plenty of accommodation, still others have nowhere to stay, but most are blessed with white sand beaches and crystal clear water.
Closer to Kota Kinabalu and therefore more easily accessible are the five islands of the Tuanku Abdul Rahman Park, with lovely beaches, great jungle trails, interesting wildlife on land and notably underwater. It's a great area for snorkelling, diving or simply relaxing.
Make it happen
If you were amazed and inspired by the recent ITV mini series about Borneo with Dame Judi Dench, why not contact our handpicked local experts today to find out how they would tailor make a Borneo holiday for you? They can create an itinerary based around your requirements and interests. To speak to someone in the TravelLocal office please call +44 (0)117 325 7898.